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Cataplexy—An abrupt and reversible loss of muscle tone. Cataplexy is one of the key symptoms of narcolepsy.
Circadian rhythm—A body rhythm that occurs in a 24-hour cycle. Sleep, body temperature, and some endocrine functions exhibit circadian rhythms.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)—A recording of electrical activity in the brain.
Insomnia—Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
Nocturnal myoclonus—A sleep disorder in which sleep is disturbed by twitching or cramps in the leg muscles. Nocturnal myoclonus is also known as periodic limb movements in sleep (PMLS).
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep—Stages of sleep during which rapid eye movements do not occur. The majority of sleep consists of the four stages of NREM sleep.
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep—A stage of sleep during which the sleeper's eyes move back and forth rapidly. Most dreams occur during REM sleep.
Restless leg syndrome (RLS)—A sleep disorder in which the person is awakened by uncomfortable "crawly" feelings in the legs.
Sleep apnea—Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep.
Sleep hygiene—A set of behaviors associated with the timing and conditions of sleep. Good sleep hygiene involves setting a regular sleep schedule, avoiding bedtime stress, and restricting activities so that the bed becomes a place for sleeping.
Sleep paralysis—A sudden inability to move that occurs at the point of falling asleep or awakening.
Lashley, Felissa R., and M. de Menses. "Sleep Enhancement." In Nursing Interventions: Effective Nursing Treatments, ed. G.M. Bulechek and J.C. McCloskey. Philadelphia:W.B. Saunders, 1999.
Poceta, J. Steven, and Merrill M. Mitler, eds. Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1998.
Shneerson, John M. Handbook of Sleep Medicine. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000.
Borbely, Alexander A., and Giulio Tononi, "The quest for the essence of sleep." Daedalus 127 (Spring 1998): 167.
Martin, Jennifer, Tamar Shochat, and Sonia Ancoli-Israel, "Assessment and treatment of sleep disturbances in older adults." Clinical Psychology Review 20 (August 2000): 783-805.
Myslinski, Norbert R., "In the Arms of Morpheus." World and I 15 (December 2000): 130.
National Sleep Foundation. 1522 K Street NW. Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. <http://www.sleepfoundation.org>.
"Less Fun, Less Sleep, More Work: An American Portrait." 2001 Sleep in America Poll results. National Sleep Foundation. March 2001. 27 March 2001. <http://www.sleepfoundation.org/PressArchives/lessfun_lesssleep.html.>.
Denise L. Schmutte, Ph.D.
Author Info: Denise L. Schmutte Ph.D., The Gale Group Inc., Gale, Detroit, Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health, 2002
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