Join for Just $16 A Year
- Discounts on travel and everyday savings
- Subscription to AARP The Magazine
- Free membership for your spouse or partner
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is contracted through sexual contact via anal, oral, or vaginal intercourse; blood exchange; shared intravenous syringes; or from mother to child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or breast-feeding. It originated in primates but ultimately transmitted to humans. The first cases were discovered in Africa in 1950s and 1960s, and the disease spread rapidly throughout the globe, affecting more than 36 million people by 2001.
HIV causes progressive failure of the immune system, making the body far more susceptible to infections and cancer. Although some antiretroviral drugs reduce the mortality and morbidity of the infection, there is no cure for HIV, and it's high genetic variability makes treatment options limited. Most untreated HIV victims ultimately develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
As AIDS greatly compromises the immune system, patients die not from AIDS itself, but from opportunistic infections or malignancies, such as the common cold virus or pneumonia. The length of time for HIV to develop into AIDS varies but, if left untreated, HIV will transition to AIDS approximately 10 years after infection.
Most experts agree that HIV is a descendent of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which initially only affected primates but, after mutating, was able to be transmitted to humans, likely as a result of humans killing monkeys and eating their flesh. After being acquired by humans, and once the disease was regularly transmitted from person to person, it became known as a human virus. HIV was transmitted throughout the world when travel out of Africa to other parts of the world became accessible. Roads and river transportation allowed for easier and quicker travel to industrialized parts of the world. The syndrome was finally regarded as a clinical virus in 1981 and named in 1986.
There are two types of HIV: Type 1, which can be broken down into several subgroups based on location, and type 2, which seems to be less easy to transmit. Both are contracted through the exchange of bodily fluids, and both can cause clinically indistinguishable AIDS, the final, life-threatening stage of HIV.
Written by: the Healthline Editorial Team
Published on Aug 09, 2012
Updated on Apr 10, 2013
Medically reviewed on Aug 09, 2012 by Jennifer Monti, MD, MPH
Enter your symptoms in our Symptom Checker to find out possible causes of your symptoms. Go.
Enter any list of prescription drugs and see how they interact with each other and with other substances. Go.
Enter its color and shape information, and this tool helps you identify it. Go.
Find information on drug interactions, side effects, and more. Go.
Member access to health and insurance products and services at AARPhealthcare.com.
Members can get an instant quote with AARP® Dental Insurance administered by Delta Dental Insurance Company.
Members can save on eyewear with AARP® Vision Discounts provided by EyeMed.
Caregiving can be a lonely journey, but AARP offers resources that can help.