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Vertigo is one of the most common medical complaints. Vertigo is the feeling that you are moving when you are not. Or it might feel like things around you are moving when they are not. Vertigo can feel similar to motion sickness. Patients generally refer to vertigo as “feeling dizzy.” Vertigo is not the same as lightheadedness.
The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere’s disease, and acute onset vertigo.
Treatment depends on the cause. Popular treatments include special medications called vestibular blocking agents.
The outlook for vertigo-associated disease (VAD) depends on the cause. Acute onset vertigo attacks generally last 24 to 48 hours. Meniere’s disease does not have a cure.
There are two categories of vertigo. Peripheral vertigo occurs as a result of a problem in the inner ear or the vestibular nerve. The vestibular nerve connects the inner ear with the brain. Central vertigo occurs when there is a problem in the brain, especially the cerebellum. The cerebellum is the part of the hindbrain that controls coordination of movements and balance.
According to research published in Australian Family Physician, 93 percent of vertigo cases are peripheral vertigo caused by one of the following (Kuo et al., 2008):
Rarely, peripheral vertigo is caused by
Causes of central vertigo include
Vertigo feels similar to motion sickness.
Symptoms of VAD include:
Diagnosis of VAD depends on:
Doctors can separate dizziness from vertigo by asking a simple question: “Is the world spinning, or are you lightheaded?” If the world appears to be spinning, you have true vertigo. If you are lightheaded, you are experiencing dizziness.
Tests to determine the type of vertigo include:
Imaging tests for VAD include:
Warning signs of serious complications include:
Treatment depends on the cause. Vestibular blocking agents (VBAs) are the most popular type of medication used.
Vestibular blocking agents include:
Treatments for specific causes of vertigo include:
Factors that increase your risk of VAD include
The outlook for VAD depends on the cause. APV usually lasts 24 to 48 hours. Meniere’s disease has no cure. You will need to manage the symptoms.
Written by: Lydia Krause
Medically reviewed by George Krucik, MD
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