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This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Rebecca Bramwell, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Sooyoun Kang, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Erica Seamon, PharmD (Nova Southeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
Bor JY, Chen HY, Yen GC. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production of some common vegetables. J Agric.Food Chem 3-8-2006;54(5):1680-1686.
Cho EJ, Yokozawa T, Rhyu DY, et al. Study on the inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and their main compounds on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):544-551.
Huang CJ, Wu MC. Differential effects of foods traditionally regarded as 'heating' and 'cooling' on prostaglandin E(2) production by a macrophage cell line. J Biomed.Sci 2002;9(6 Pt 2):596-606.
Jung HA, Kim JE, Chung HY, et al. Antioxidant principles of Nelumbo nucifera stamens. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26(4):279-285.
Kashiwada Y, Aoshima A, Ikeshiro Y, et al. Anti-HIV benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and structure-activity correlations with related alkaloids. Bioorg.Med Chem 1-17-2005;13(2):443-448.
Kuo YC, Lin YL, Liu CP, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 propagation in HeLa cells interrupted by Nelumbo nucifera. J Biomed.Sci 2005;12(6):1021-1034.
Ling ZQ, Xie BJ, Yang EL. Isolation, characterization, and determination of antioxidative activity of oligomeric procyanidins from the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. J Agric.Food Chem 4-6-2005;53(7):2441-2445.
Liu CP, Tsai WJ, Lin YL, et al. The extracts from Nelumbo Nucifera suppress cell cycle progression, cytokine genes expression, and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Life Sci. 6-25-2004;75(6):699-716.
Masuda J, Urakawa T, Ozaki Y, et al. Short photoperiod induces dormancy in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Ann Bot (Lond) 2006;97(1):39-45.
Qian JQ. Cardiovascular pharmacological effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2002;23(12):1086-1092.
Rai S, Wahile A, Mukherjee K, et al. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-6-2006;104(3):322-327.
Sohn DH, Kim YC, Oh SH, et al. Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects of Nelumbo nucifera. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2-3):165-169.
Wu S, Sun C, Cao X, et al. Preparative counter-current chromatography isolation of liensinine and its analogues from embryo of the seed of Nelumbo nucifera GAERTN. using upright coil planet centrifuge with four multilayer coils connected in series. J Chromatogr.A 7-2-2004;1041(1-2):153-162.
Wu, M. J., Wang, L., Weng, C. Y., and Yen, J. H. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of the lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera Gertn.). Am.J.Chin Med. 2003;31(5):687-698.
Yang J, Zhou K. NMR spectroscopic analysis of neferine and isoliensinine. Magn Reson.Chem 2004;42(11):994-997.
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