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Bladder cancer occurs in the tissues of the bladder, which is the organ in the body that holds urine. According to the National Institutes of Health, approximately 45,000 men and 17,000 women per year are diagnosed with the disease.
There are three types of bladder cancer:
Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer. It begins in the transitional cells in the inner layer of the bladder. Transitional cells are cells that change shape without becoming damaged when the tissue is stretched.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare cancer in the United States. It begins when thin, flat squamous cells form in the bladder after a long-term infection or irritation in the bladder.
Adenocarcinoma is also a rare cancer in the United States. It begins when glandular cells form in the bladder after long-term bladder irritation and inflammation. Glandular cells are what make up the mucus-secreting glands in the body.
Many people with bladder cancer can have blood in their urine but no pain while urinating. There are a number of symptoms that might indicate bladder cancer like fatigue, weight loss, and bone tenderness, and these can indicate more advanced disease. You should pay particular attention to the following symptoms:
The exact cause of bladder cancer is unknown. It occurs when abnormal cells grow and multiply quickly and uncontrollably, and invade other tissues.
Smoking increases your risk of bladder cancer. Smoking causes half of all bladder cancers in men and women. The following factors also increase your risk of developing bladder cancer:
Your doctor may diagnose bladder cancer using one or more of the following methods:
Your doctor can rate bladder cancer with a staging system that goes from stages 0 to 4 to identify how far the cancer has spread. The stages of bladder cancer mean the following:
Your doctor will work with you to decide what treatment to provide based on the type and stage of your bladder cancer, your symptoms, and your overall health.
Treatment for stage 0 and stage 1 bladder cancer may include surgery to remove the tumor from the bladder, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy, which involves taking a medication that causes your immune system to attack the cancer cells.
Treatment for stage 2 and stage 3 bladder cancer may include:
Treatment for stage 4 bladder cancer may include:
Your outlook depends on a lot of variables, including the type and stage of cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, the five-year survival rates by stage are the following:
There are treatments available for all stages. Also, survival rates don’t always tell the whole story and can’t predict your future. Speak with your doctor about any questions or concerns you may have regarding your diagnosis and treatment.
Because doctors don’t yet know what causes bladder cancer, it may not be preventable in all cases. The following factors and behaviors can reduce your risk of getting bladder cancer:
Written by: Rose Kivion: Sep 28, 2017
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