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Congenital toxoplasmosis is a disease that occurs in fetuses infected with Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, which is transmitted from mother to fetus. It can cause miscarriage or stillbirth. It can also cause serious and progressive visual, hearing, motor, cognitive, and other problems in a child.
There are approximately 400 to 4,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis each year in the United States.
Most infected infants appear healthy at birth. They often do not develop symptoms until months, years, or even decades later in life.
Infants with severe congenital toxoplasmosis usually have symptoms at birth or develop symptoms within the first six months of life.
Symptoms may include:
If you become infected with the parasites during your first trimester of pregnancy, your baby has a 15-20 percent chance of getting congenital toxoplasmosis. However, if you become infected during your third trimester, your unborn child has about a 60 percent chance of becoming infected, according to estimates from the Boston Children’s Hospital.
You can get the T. gondii parasites in several ways:
If you become infected with the parasites during your pregnancy, you can pass them to your unborn child during pregnancy or delivery.
You can keep your cat, even if they have the parasites. The risk of getting the parasites from your cat is very low, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, make sure to have someone else change your cat’s litter box for the entire duration of your pregnancy.
Your doctor may perform a blood test to detect the parasites. If you test positive for the parasites, they may perform the additional tests during your pregnancy to determine if your unborn baby is also infected. These tests include:
If your baby shows symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis after birth, your doctor may perform one or more of the following tests:
Some form of medication is typically used to treat congenital toxoplasmosis:
In addition to medication, your doctor may prescribe other treatments, depending on your baby’s symptoms.
Your baby’s long-term outlook depends on the severity of their symptoms. The parasite infection generally causes more serious health problems to fetuses that contract it in early pregnancy rather than late pregnancy. If detected early, medications can be given before the parasites harm your fetus. Up to 80 percent of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis will develop visual and learning disabilities later in their lives. Some infants may experience vision loss and lesions in their eyes thirty or more years after birth.
Congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States can be prevented if you, as an expecting mother:
Following these simple guidelines will help you avoid getting infected by the parasites that cause toxoplasmosis and therefore can’t pass them onto your unborn child.
Written by: Rose Kivi
Medically reviewed on: Feb 24, 2016: George Krucik, MD MBA
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