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You have a thin layer of tissue covering the inside of your abdomen and most of its organs. This is called the peritoneum. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. The inflammation is usually the result of a fungal or bacterial infection caused by an abdominal injury, an underlying medical condition, or a treatment device, such as a dialysis catheter or feeding tube.
Peritonitis is a serious condition that needs immediate medical attention. Prompt intravenous antibiotics are needed to treat the infection. Surgery is sometimes necessary to remove infected tissue. The infection can spread and become life-threatening if it isn’t treated promptly.
There are two types of peritonitis. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the result of an infection of the fluid in your peritoneal cavity. Liver or kidney failure can cause this condition. People on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure are also at increased risk for SBP.
Secondary peritonitis is usually due to an infection that has spread from your digestive tract.
The following conditions can lead to peritonitis:
Symptoms will vary depending on the underlying cause of your infection. Common symptoms of peritonitis include:
If you’re on peritoneal dialysis, your dialysis fluid may appear cloudy or have white flecks or clumps in it. You may also notice redness or feel pain around your catheter.
If you have symptoms of peritonitis, seek medical attention right away. Delaying your treatment could put your life at risk.
Your doctor will ask you about your medical history and perform a complete physical exam. This will include touching or pressing on your abdomen, which will probably cause some discomfort.
There are other tests to help diagnose peritonitis:
If you’re on dialysis, your doctor may diagnose you based on the appearance of cloudy dialysis fluid.
The first step in treating peritonitis is determining its underlying cause. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to fight infection and medication for pain.
If you have infected bowels, an abscess (a collection of pus), or an inflamed appendix, you may need surgery to remove the infected tissue.
If you’re on kidney dialysis and have peritonitis, you may have to wait until the infection clears up to receive more dialysis. If the infection continues, you might need to switch to a different type of dialysis.
Your treatment must begin promptly to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.
If it’s not treated promptly, the infection may enter your bloodstream, causing shock and damage to your other organs. This can be fatal.
The potential complications of spontaneous peritonitis include:
The complications of secondary peritonitis include:
If you’re on dialysis, wash your hands and fingernails before touching your catheter. Clean the skin around the catheter daily. Follow your doctor’s instructions regarding the care and storage of your medical supplies.
See your doctor, go to an emergency room, or call 911 if you have severe abdominal pain or an abdominal injury, such as a knife wound.
The outlook for peritonitis depends on the cause of your infection and how far it had progressed before treatment began. Medications and surgery are usually able to bring the infection under control.
If treatment doesn’t begin early, the infection can spread. If other organs are damaged, your recovery will depend on your overall health and how much damage was done.
Written by: Ann Pietrangelo
Medically reviewed on: Oct 23, 2015: Steven Kim, MD
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