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Superficial thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory condition of the veins due to a blood clot just below the surface of the skin. It usually occurs in the legs, but it can occasionally occur in the arms and neck. Anyone can develop superficial thrombophlebitis, but females are affected more than males.
Symptoms of superficial thrombophlebitis include:
Call your doctor if the above symptoms appear or get worse, or you develop new symptoms such as fever and chills. This could be a sign of a more serious illness or condition.
Several factors increase the risk of developing superficial thrombophlebitis. The more common risk factors include:
Superficial thrombophlebitis is also associated with more serious medical conditions, including:
Several very rare conditions can also lead to the development of superficial thrombophlebitis:
Your doctor will examine the affected area and the skin. They will also check your:
Your doctor may also perform the following tests:
Superficial thrombophlebitis is treated at home in most cases. Your doctor might recommend applying a warm compress to the affected area and elevating it to relieve swelling. Wearing support stockings can also help reduce swelling.
Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or aspirin, can help reduce the redness and irritation caused by inflammation. This condition usually goes away within two weeks. It can take longer for the hardness in your vein to subside.
In rare, serious cases, removal or stripping of the vein is necessary. This is more common if you have varicose veins.
Superficial thrombophlebitis is generally a short-term condition without complications. Complications that may arise in rare cases include:
Except for these rare complications, you can expect a full recovery in one to two weeks. Hardening of the vein may take a little longer to heal. Recovery may also take longer if an infection is involved, or if you also have deep vein thrombosis.
Superficial thrombophlebitis may recur if you have varicose veins. Further testing and treatment may be necessary if you have recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis, but do not have varicose veins.
Prevention of superficial thrombophlebitis is limited, but there are some steps you can take.
If an IV is causing it, remove or change the location of the IV. The IV should be taken out at the first sign of inflammation.
When traveling, make sure to stand up and move around every couple of hours. Move your arms and legs around and stretch if you must sit or lie down for long periods. Also, stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water. If you’re planning a long trip or you have risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis, talk to your doctor about taking a low dose of aspirin daily.
Written by: Julie Roddick
Medically reviewed on: Sep 20, 2016: Deborah Weatherspoon, PhD, RN, CRNA, COI
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